Dictionary > English Dictionary > Definition, synonym and antonym of above
Meaning of above by Wiktionary Dictionary

above


    Pronunciation

    • /ə-bŭv/, ( UK )IPA: /ə.ˈbʌv/, X-SAMPA: /@"bVv/
    • ( US ) IPA: /ə.ˈbʌv/
    • Rhymes: -ʌv

    Etymology

    • First attested in 896 .
    • From Middle English aboven, abuven, from Old English ābufan, onbufan from on ( “on” ) + bufan ( “over” ), ( akin to Middle Dutch bōven, Old Frisian bova, Middle High German bobene ) from bī ( “by” ) + ufan ( “over” )[1] .
    • Cognate with Danish oven, Dutch boven, German oben, Swedish ovan, Old Saxon oƀan, Old High German obana .
    • ( preposition, noun ): From the adverb sense of the Middle English aboven
    • ( adjective ): From the adverb above .

    Preposition

    above

    1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface; over; — opposed to below or beneath.
    2. Beyond; on the other side .
    3. Farther north than .
    4. Worn on top of, as clothing .
    5. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; higher in measure or degree than; out of reach; not exposed to; not likely to be affected by; in preference to .
      Even the chief of police is not above suspicion .
      He was aways above reproach .
    6. Too proud to stoop; averse to; disinclined .
      The owner was above taking more than a token salary .
    7. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, above a hundred. ( Passing into the adverbial sense; see adverb #4 below. )
    8. In addition to; besides .

    Derived terms

    Adverb

    above ( not comparable )

    1. In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; in the sky; upstairs; farther upstream .
      He's in a better place now, floating free as the clouds above .
    2. On the upper half or the dorsal surface of an animal .
      The sparrow I saw was rufous above and off-white below .
    3. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a foregoing page.
    4. Higher in rank, power, or number .
      He appealed to the court above .
    5. ( archaic ) In addition .

    Derived terms

    Adjective

    above ( not comparable )

    1. Being located higher on the same page or on a preceding page .
    2. Of heaven; heavenly .

    Usage notes

    1. Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word said, mentioned, quoted, or the like:

    Noun

    above ( uncountable )

    1. Something, especially a person name in legal documents, that appears higher on the same page or on a preceding page .
    2. Higher authority .
    3. Heaven .

    Usage notes

    1. Above is often used further elliptically as a noun by omitting the noun, where it is should be clear what is omitted .
      See the above .

    Related terms

    • abovesaid
    • aboves'd

    See also

    1. ^ 2004 [1998], Elliott K. Dobbie; Dunmore, C. William, et al., Barnhart, Robert K. editor, Chambers Dictionary of Etymology, Edinburgh, Scotland: Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, ISBN 0550142304, page 4:
    • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "The vertical axis", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

    Statistics



Explanation of above by Wordnet Dictionary

above


    Adverb
    1. at an earlier place

    2. see above
    3. in or to a place that is higher

    Adjective
    1. appearing earlier in the same text

    2. flaws in the above interpretation
    Noun
    1. an earlier section of a written text

    2. for instructions refer to the above


    Definition of above by GCIDE Dictionary

    above


    1. Above prep. [OE. above, aboven, abuffe, AS. abufon; an ( or on ) on + be by + ufan upward; cf. Goth. uf under. √199. See Over.]
      1. In or to a higher place; higher than; on or over the upper surface; over; -- opposed to below or beneath.

      Fowl that may fly above the earth. Gen. i. 20.

      2. Figuratively, higher than; superior to in any respect; surpassing; beyond; higher in measure or degree than; as, “things above comprehension; above mean actions; conduct above reproach.” “Thy worth . . . is actions above my gifts.” Marlowe.

      I saw in the way a light from heaven above the brightness of the sun. Acts xxxvi. 13.

      3. Surpassing in number or quantity; more than; as, “above a hundred”. ( Passing into the adverbial sense. See Above, adv., 4. )

      above all, before every other consideration; chiefly; in preference to other things.

      Over and above, prep. or adv., besides; in addition to.

    2. Above adv.
      1. In a higher place; overhead; into or from heaven; as, “the clouds above”.

      2. Earlier in order; higher in the same page; hence, in a foregoing page. “That was said above.” Dryden.

      3. Higher in rank or power; as, “he appealed to the court above”.

      4. More than; as, “above five hundred were present”.

      Above is often used elliptically as an adjective by omitting the word mentioned, quoted, or the like; as, the above observations, the above reference, the above articles. -- Above is also used substantively. “The waters that come down from above.” Josh. iii. 13.

      It is also used as the first part of a compound in the sense of before, previously; as, above-cited, above-described, above-mentioned, above-named, abovesaid, abovespecified, above-written, above-given.