- enamor / enamour
- enthral, enthrall
- envelop / envelope
- ( usually ) IPA: /ən/, X-SAMPA: /@n/
- ( after /t, d/ also ) IPA: /n̩/, X-SAMPA: /n=/
- In many accents, -en routinely gives up its vowel syllable when given additional suffixes. For example, fatten /ˈfæt.n̩/ + -ing /-ɪŋ/ can be /ˈfæt.n̩.ɪŋ/ or /ˈfæt.nɪŋ/.
- Even in many accents where this habitual syllable deletion is less usual, the syllable loss may still predominate for certain inflections that have become common words in their own right, such as gardener /ɡɑː( r )d.nə( r )/ .
- Syllable loss may be habitually prevented to avoid merging with more deeply entrenched inflections, such as for keeping the generic inflection lightening /ˈlaɪt.n̩.ɪŋ/ from being pronounced identically to the established term lightning /ˈlaɪt.nɪŋ/ ( notice the e is no longer written ), even if they both independently derived from a combination of lighten + -ing.
- Denotes the past participle form when attached to a verb .
- Denotes a quasi-past participle or participle-like adjective when attached to a noun or verb .
- Can be used to denote the plural form of a small number of English words, the majority of whose etymology goes back to the N-stem ( i.e. Weak noun ) declension of Germanic languages .
- Examples: aurochs, aurochsen; bee, been; brother, brethren; child, children; cow, kine; knee, kneen; eye, eyen; hose, hosen; house, housen; ox, oxen; shoe, shoon; sister, sistren; tree, treen
- When attached to certain adjectives, it formed a transitive verb whose meaning is, to make ( adjective ). Usually, the verb is ergative, sometimes not. The same construction could also be done to certain ( fewer ) nouns, as, strengthen, in which case the verb means roughly, to give ( noun ) to .
- Suffix meaning "pertaining to", "having the qualities of", "resembling", "like" .
- elfin, wolven, peachen
- When attached to certain nouns that are the names of a material, it forms an adjective whose meaning is, made of ( noun ). This is a formative pattern with many obsolescent remnants. Changes in the form of the root noun, and the dropping of the "e" in the suffix occur. There are also orphan formations whose root has been lost to the current language .
- ( causes i-mutation ) used to create diminutive neuter nouns
- ( often causes i-mutation ) used to create feminine nouns from other nouns
- ( academic philosophy ) Nicomachean Ethics
1. [F. en-, L. in.] A prefix signifying in or into, used in many English words, chiefly those borrowed from the French. Some English words are written indifferently with en-or in-. For ease of pronunciation it is commonly changed to em-before p, b, and m, as in employ, embody, emmew. It is sometimes used to give a causal force, as in enable, enfeeble, to cause to be, or to make, able, or feeble; and sometimes merely gives an intensive force, as in enchasten. See In-.
2. A prefix from Gr. in, meaning in; as, “encephalon, entomology”. See In-.
By Wiktionary ( 2012/07/31 03:16 UTC Version )
From Middle English -n, -en, past participle ending of strong verbs ( compare Middle English take( n ), took, taken: "take, took, taken" ), from Old Norse -inn, past participle ending of strong verbs ( compare Old Norse taka, tōk, takinn: "take, took, taken" ). Replaced the native past participle ending of strong verbs ( from Old English -en ) in some words, which had weakened to -e or disappeared ( compare Southern Middle English do( n ), dud( e ), ydo : "do, did, done" ), but not in others ( compare cume( n ), com, ycume: "come, came, come" ) .
From Middle English -n ( in words ending in a vowel: flee: fleen "flea: fleas" ) and -en. Noun plural marker ( predominantly in Southern dialects of Middle English ), from Old English Nominative-Accusative plural ending of Weak nouns ( n-stem declension ); compare nama: naman ( masc. ) "name: names"; hlǣfdige: hlǣfdigan ( fem. ) "lady: ladies"; ēare: ēaran ( neut. ) "ear: ears". Assisted by M.E. dative plural ending -n, -en from late O.E. -un, -on, weakened form of earlier -um. Akin to Old High German n-stem ( compare namo: namon "name: names" ), Latin n-stem ( compare homo: homin- )
From adjectives: whiten, quicken
From nouns: strengthen, hasten
Middle English, from Old English -en, from Proto-Germanic *-īnaz; suffix meaning "made of, consisting of, having the qualities of" applied to nouns to form adjectives. Akin to Old High German -īn, Latin -īnus. See -ine .
-en n .
From Proto-Germanic *-njō, *-injō, *-unjō
-en f .
By Wiktionary ( 2012/07/23 18:29 UTC Version )
Definition of en- by GCIDE Dictionary